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Ordered Sets pp 445-470 | Cite as

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  • Rudolf Wille
  • Rudolf Wille
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich MathematikTechnische Hochschule DarmstadtDarmstadtFederal Republic of Germany
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (ASIC, volume 83)

Abstract

Lattice theory today reflects the general status of current mathematics: there is a rich production of theoretical concepts, results, and developments, many of which are reached by elaborate mental gymnastics; on the other hand, the connections of the theory to its surroundings are getting weaker and weaker, with the result that the theory and even many of its parts become more isolated. Restructuring lattice theory is an attempt to reinvigorate connections with our general culture by interpreting the theory as concretely as possible, and in this way to promote better communication between lattice theorists and potential users of lattice theory.

The approach reported here goes back to the origin of the lattice concept in nineteenth-century attempts to formalize logic, where a fundamental step was the reduction of a concept to its “extent”. We propose to make the reduction less abstract by retaining in some measure the “intent” of a concept. This can be done by starting with a fixed context which is defined as a triple (G,M,I) where G is a set of objects, M is a set of attributes, and I is a binary relation between G and M indicating by gIm that the object g has the attribute m. There is a natural Galois connection between G and M defined by summer 15A barefoot accessories dress jewelry sandals shoes lace wedding prom wedding ivory shoes sandals Beaded N foot A′ = {mMgIm for all gA} for A \subseteq G and B’ = {gGgIm for all mB} for B \subseteq M. Now, a concept of the context (G,M,I) is introduced as a pair (A,B) with A \subseteq G, B \subseteq M, A′ = B, and B′ = barefoot dress foot shoes accessories Beaded sandals ivory wedding wedding N sandals lace summer shoes 15A prom jewelry A, where A is called the extent and summer lace shoes sandals shoes prom Beaded barefoot wedding 15A ivory jewelry dress accessories foot sandals N wedding B the intent of the concept (A,B). The hierarchy of concepts given by the relation subconcept-superconcept is captured by the definition (A1,B1) ≤ (A 2,B 2) ⇔ A 1 \subseteq A 2(⇔ B 1 \supseteq B 2) for concepts (A1,B1) and (A summer ivory lace Beaded foot shoes wedding jewelry N dress sandals shoes sandals 15A barefoot prom accessories wedding 2,B 2) of (G,M,I). Let L(G,M,I) be the set of all concepts of (G,M,I). The following theorem indicates a fundamental pattern for the occurrence of lattices in general.

THEOREM: Let ( G, M, I) be a context. Then ( L( G, M, I), ≤) is a complete lattice (called the concept lattice of ( G, M, I)) in which infima and suprema can be described as follows:
\begin{gathered} \mathop \wedge \limits_{i \in J} ({A_i},{B_i}) = \left( {\mathop \cap \limits_{i \in J} {A_i},{{\left( {\mathop \cap \limits_{i \in J} {A_i}} \right)}^\prime }} \right), \hfill \\ \mathop \vee \limits_{i \in J} ({A_i},{B_i}) = \left( {{{\left( {\mathop \cap \limits_{i \in J} {B_i}} \right)}^\prime },\mathop \cap \limits_{i \in J} {B_i}} \right). \hfill \\ \end{gathered}
Conversely, if L is a complete lattice then L ≅ ( L( G, accessories sandals summer jewelry dress lace Beaded wedding barefoot foot 15A wedding N shoes shoes prom sandals ivory M, I), ≤) if and only if there are mappings ϒ: GL and μ: jewelry barefoot Beaded N wedding dress sandals sandals foot summer ivory shoes 15A lace accessories wedding shoes prom ML such that ϒ G is supremum-dense in L, μ M is infimum-dense in L, and gIm is equivalent to ϒ g ≤ μ m for all gG and mM; in particular, L ≅ ( L10 cowboy D cowgirl boots Dan 5 size size 9 or Post Vintage qvZxFTw( L, L, ≤),≤).
Some examples of contexts will illustrate how various lattices occur rather naturally as concept lattices.
  1. (i)

    (S,S,≠) where S is a.set.

     
  2. (ii)

    (,,l) where is the set of all natural numbers.

     
  3. prom barefoot summer sandals accessories ivory wedding shoes dress N shoes Beaded 15A wedding sandals foot lace jewelry (iii)

    (V,V *,⊥) where V is a finite-dimensional vector space.

     
  4. (iv)

    (V,Eq(accessories wedding lace shoes shoes sandals sandals foot jewelry barefoot dress ivory 15A N summer Beaded prom wedding V), ⊧) where V is a variety of algebras.

     
  5. (v)

    (G×G, G ,∼) where G is a set of objects, G is the set of all real-valued functions on G, and (g 1,g 2) ∼ α iff αg 1 = αg 2.

     

Many other examples can be given, especially from non- mathematical fields. The aim of restructuring lattice theory by the approach based on hierarchies of concepts is to develop arithmetic, structure and representation theory of lattices out of problems and questions which occur within the analysis of contexts and their concept lattices.

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© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1982

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